GlossaryAmide – A nitrogen-based organic compound. Amide bonds are one of the main methods used to link antibodies to surfaces.
Amino – An organic compound based on nitrogen and derived from ammonia. Amino groups have the compound NH2 as part of their structure. Amino acids, of which there are twenty occurring naturally, are the building blocks of proteins.
Analyte – The substance or chemical constituent that is measured by a (diagnostic) assay.
Antibodies – ‘Y’-shaped immune system proteins that can bind to an antigen and help to neutralise the potentially harmful effects of the cells carrying the antigen. Antibodies are often used in diagnostics to create immunoassays.
Antigen – the molecule that antibodies bind.
Antigen-Down ELISA - one of three ELISA testing formats, involving the binding of an antigen to a solid surface and subsequent detection by a labelled antibody, see also sandwich ELISA, competitive ELISA.
Assay - A test for the presence of a particular substance within a mixture, e.g. a blood sample.
Beads – micro- or nanometer sized spheres used in immune-assays. generally binding agents such as antibodies for the target of interest are coupled to the bead. Beads are often magnetic, allowing separation and purification of analyte through magnetic forces.
Bead-Based Assays – immune-assays where the capture antibody is bound to a bead instead of a slide or plate.
Biochip – See Microarray
Bio-Layer – The former name (2005-2008) of Anteo Diagnostics. Bio-Layer’s ASX Code was BLS.
Biomarker – A protein structure that could be indicative of disease and which a diagnostic test is designed to detect.
Chelate – A chemical compound in the form of a heterocyclic ring, containing a metal ion attached by coordinate bonds to at least two non-metal ions.
Chelation - The combination of a metal ion with a chemical compound to form a ring structure.
Combinatorial Chemistry – A method of synthesising large numbers of chemical compounds by combining sets of chemical building blocks. Anteo uses combinatorial chemistry in its surface coating technology.
Competitive ELISA - one of three ELISA formats, also called a competitive binding assay that is based on the comeptition of labelled and unlabeled ligands for a limited number of antibody binding locations, see also antigen-down ELISA, sandwich ELISA.
CV % - The coefficient of variation (CV) is a way to quantify scatter. It is defined as the standard deviation of a group of values divided by their mean. That ratio is multiplied by 100 to express the coefficient of variation as a percent. The CV provides a general indictation about the performance of a method. CVs of 5% or less generally give us a feeling of good method performance, whereas CVs of 10% and higher is bad.
Diluent – buffer used to dilute a standard or sample.
Dynamic Range – The range of concentrations of an analyte that can be accurately detected using a diagnostic test.
ELISA - Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay frequently used testing format in which a molecule of interest is identified and quantified using the ability of antibodies to specifically bind to the the target molecule. For detection the antibody is labelled with an enzymatic marker.
FACS - Fluorescence-activated cell sorting instrument that is used at Anteo for counting and characterising one bead at a time. It provides fast, objective and quantitative recording of fluorescent signals from individual cells as well as physical separation of cells of particular interest. A thousand particles per second can be analysed.
Flow Cytometry - a method for counting beads by suspending them in a stream of fluid/buffer and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus.
Fluorescent Immunoassay- an immunoassay that employs fluorescent markers to facilitate quantification.
Immunoassay - biochemical test based on the innate ability of an antibody to bind exclusively to one or an extremely limited group of molecules for the purpose of identification and quantification.
Immunoprecipitation (IP) - technique of precipitating a protein antigen out of solution using an antibody that specifically binds to that particular protein.
In-Vitro Diagnostics (IVD) - Diagnostic tests intended to perform diagnoses from assays in a test tube, or more generally in a controlled environment outside a living organism.
Ligand - A molecule that binds to another molecule.
LoD – Short for ‘Limit of Detection’, which is the lowest level of analyte that a diagnostic technology can detect.
Membranes – In diagnostics, the material, generally made from nitrocellulose, used in lateral flow immunochromato-graphy, where the sample being tested flows along the membrane, on which are placed binding agents for the target being assayed, e.g. card based pregnancy test.
Microarray – A small surface holding various probes specific for DNA fragments, antibodies, or proteins that can be used to test for multiple targets at once. Microarrays are often called ‘biochips’.
Microplate (microtiter plate) – A plate with multiple sample wells (96, 384, 1536) containing the binding agent for the target being assayed.
Microplate Reader – A microplate reader (most common for 96-well plates) offering various detection modes is used to measure all the wells of a microplate at once. Usually used in ELISA’s.
Microspheres – See beads.
Mix&Go – A surface coating for diagnostic products that uses metal oligomers as ligands to bind the capture agent to the diagnostic surface.
Monoclonal Antibody - A class of antibodies produced in the laboratory by a single clone of cells or a cell line and consisting of identical antibody molecules.
Monomer – A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form oligomers or polymers.
Multiplex – A diagnostic test for more than one analyte at the same time and using the same sample.
Oligomer – A few monomers joined together.
Optical density - Absorbance for an optical element at a given wavelength.
Peptide - Two or more amino acids linked by chemical bonds.
Point-of-care (PoC) - A diagnostic test done at the patient’s bedside, at home or in a physician’s office rather than in a central laboratory.
Polyclonal Antibody - A mixture of antibodies active against a specific antigen, each recognizing a different epitope or region of the antigen.
Polymer – A large molecule composed of repeating structural units called monomers.
Polymerat – Early name of the venture that eventually became Anteo Diagnostics.
Precision – A statistical evaluation of the ability to detect the same value over multiple measurements.
Priority Date – The date on which an invention is considered to have occurred for patent protection purposes. Basic patent protection is being granted to inventions for 20 years from priority date.
Protein – A long chains of amino acids linked together.
Protein A - A protein which binds a defined region of IgG type antibodies.
Proteomics - The large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions.
Quantification - The process to determine or express the quantity of the molecule of interest.
Radioimmunoassay - A testing method that uses radioactive isotopes as detection markers.
Reagents - substances added to a system to cause a chemical reaction or to identify whether a reaction will occur.
Reproducibility – The ability of a (diagnostic) test to be replicated more than twice in different laboratories by different people.
Sandwich ELISA - Most frequently-used of the ELISA testing formats, in which the analyte is bound on each side by one of two antibodies, the detection and the capture antibodies, see also antigen-down ELISA, competitive ELISA.
Sensitivity – The ability of a diagnostic test to detect the substance being assayed for. Sensitivity is measured by LoD.
Serum - Almost clear body fluid extracted from blood.
Specificity – the degree to which a positive (diagnostic) test correctly identifies people with disease. Nonspecific tests may also incorrectly identify disease-fee people as having the disease (false positives) or incorrectly identify people with the disease as disease-free (false negatives).
Streptavidin - Small protein that binds to the vitamin biotin with high affinity . The streptavidin-biotin combination can be used to link molecules such as fluorescent markers and monoclonal antibodies together.
Substrate - a molecule that an enzyme acts upon.
Western blotting - Technique for identifying a particular protein using antibodies after separation in a gel and transfer to a membrane.